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giorgi aToneli / giorgi mTawmideli / giorgi xucesmonazoni 

(1009-1065 ww.)

 

      XI  saukunis qarTveli sasuliero moRvawe, mwerali, mTargmneli, mwignobari; aTonis mTis qarTvelTa monastris _ ivironis dekanozi (1042-1044 ww.), Semdeg ki winamZRvari (1044-1056 ww.); saqarTvelos eklesiis wmindani. giorgi aTonelis xsenebas  saqarTvelos eklesia aRniSnavs Zv. stiliT 26 ivniss (ax. stiliT 10 ivliss).

      giorgis mama, saxelad iakobi, yofila mefe giorgi I-is erTguli yma, misi `erTguli da sakuTari~; deda _ mariami, garegnuli silamaziT Semkuli da RvTisnieri qali. giorgis mSoblebs sul eqvsi Svili hyoliaT: sami qali da sami vaJi. mariamisa da iakobis mesame Svili, romlis dabadeba mariams sizmarSi euwya, iyo giorgi aToneli.

      giorgi aTonelis biografis, giorgi mciris cnobiT, giorgi aTonelis mSobliuri samcxe yofila. mamamisi, iakobi mefe giorgis erTxel mociqulad gaugzavnia sparseTSi. mogzaurobisas iakobi gaCerebula erT RvTismoSiS ojaxSi, sadac gaicno metad lamazi da RvTisnieri qali, saxelad mariami, erTaderTi Svili Tavisi mSoblebisa. iakobma mariami iTxova  mSoblebisagan da sparseTidan dabrunebis Semdeg, colad SeirTo Tavisi rCeuli. sul  mariamsa da iakobs sami vaJi da sami qali SeeZinaT.

col-qmars Tavidanve hqonda ganzraxuli, pirveli Svili RvTisaTvis SeewiraT; amitom TavianTi pirmSo, qaliSvili Tekla, Svidi wlis asakSi waiyvanes taZrisis dedaTa monasterSi da aRsazrdelad miabares monastris winamZRvars, Rirseul qals, saxelad sabaias. Teklas Semdeg iakobsa da mariams SeeZinaT vaJi, romelsac Teodore uwodes. Teodores SeZenis Semdeg mSoblebma kvlav gadawyvites, momdevno vaJi RvTisaTvis SeewiraT. erT Rames mariams viRac didebuli daesizmra. man auwya mariams, rom igi Sobda RvTis mier rCeul Zes, romlisTvisac giorgi unda ewodebinaT da RvTisaTvis SeewiraT.  

momdevno vaJs mSoblebma, sizmarSi miRebuli brZanebis Tanaxmad, giorgi uwodes. giorgi aToneli daibada 1009 wels. rodesac giorgi Svidi wlis Sesrulda, mariamma da iakobma igi waiyvanes imave monasterSi, sadac maTi ufrosi qali  Tekla izrdeboda _ samcxeSi mdebare taZrisis  monasterSi. aq giorgim sami weli gaatara. saRvTo werils mas Tavisi da aswavlida. aTi wlis asakSi giorgi ukve yvelas aocebda Tavisi sibrZniT.

giorgis gamorCeuloba siyrmidanve mJRavndeboda misi xilvebiTa da mis Tavze aRsrulebuli saswaulebiT. erTxel, rodesac giorgi mdinare qcias napirze imyofeboda, man Sua mdinareSi ixila eSmaki, cecxlisfrad Semosili erTi yrmis saxiT, romelic Tavisken uxmobda napirze myofs. giorgi mdinarisken gaemarTa, magram igi Seakava angelozma, romelic TeTrebiT Semosili mSvenieri saxis mqone yrmis saxiT gamoecxada. meoredac Rrma ZilSi myofs  kvlav gamoecxada TeTrebiT Semosili yrma. am dros Turme taZrisis monasterSi cecxli gaCnda. TeTrebiT Semosilma yrmam gaaRviZa mZinare giorgi da uvneblad gaiyvana igi cecxlidan, miiyvana Soriaxlos mdebare erT egvterSi da TviTon Tvals miefara.

1019 w. aTi wlis giorgi gadavida xaxulis monasterSi, sadac moRvaweobdnen misi mamis Zmebi _ giorgi mwerali (igi adre daviT kurapalatis mweralTmTavari iyo) da saba. swored maTi winadadebiT gadaiyvana iakobma Tavisi Svili taZrisidan xaxulis monasterSi. biZebma TavianTi Zmiswuli locva-kurTxevis misaRebad mihgvares xaxulis winamZRvar makaris, agreTve xaxulis cnobil moRvaweebs: basilis ( bagrat III-is Zes) _ `moZRvarsa da ganmanaTlebels~, agreTve antoni mnaTes.

giorgis aRzrda misma biZebma miandves cnobil qarTvel sasuliero moRvawes – ilarion Tvalels (zedwodeba `Tvaleli~ momdinareobs siriaSi, antioqiis maxloblad mdebare Tvalis monastridan, sadac moRvaweobda ilarioni). romelic imxanad xaxulis monasterSi iyo damkvidrebuli. giorgim gansacvifrebeli niWi, swavlismoyvareoba  da Sromis unari gamoavlina _  `sagalobelni igi saweliwdoni da Sewyobilebani igi galobaTani yovelnive meysa Sina zepiriT daiswavna ... maSindeli igi werilTa gulis├misyofa┴ viTarca windi ra┴me momavalTa saqmeTaT┬s miiRo da esreT yovelnive saRmrToni werilni Zuelisa da axlisa sjulisani, romelni oden Cuensa enasa povna, yovelnive keTilad gulad ixuna~.

imJamad daba tvartawafSi cxovrobda didebuli feris jojikis-Ze, romelsac colad hyavda bagrat III-is asuli, da xaxulSi moRvawe basili bagratis Zisa. col-qmarma ganizraxa, sulieri cxovrebis  maswavleblad TavisTan moewviaT vinme gonieri beri. maTi arCevani SeCerda xaxulSi moRvawe giorgi mweralze. feris jojikis-Zis ojaxSi gadasaxlebulma giorgi mweralma Tan waiyvana Tavisi ZmisSvilic, rogorc kargi wignismkiTxveli da kananaxi. es moxda 1022 wels. feris jojikis Zem da misma meuRlem sixaruliT miiRes yrma giorgi da Svilad aRiares igi.

ar gauvlia did xans, rom feris jojikis-Zes bizantielebma Ralati daswames da bizantiis keisris, basilis brZanebiT Tavi mokveTes, misi col-Svili da mTeli saxleuli ki konstantinopolSi gadaasaxles. gadasaxlebulTa Soris iyvnen giorgi mwerali da misi ZmisSvili, 13 wlis giorgi. maTi yofna konstantinopolSi 12 weliwads gagrZelda. ferisis qvrivma da biZam giorgi saswavleblad miabares berZnebs, sayovelTaod aRiarebul filosofosebsa da ritorebs, sulier da xorciel cxovrebaSi gamobrZmedil monazvnebs: `saswavlod misces yrma┴ igi giorgi kacTa filosofosTa da ritorTa, oriTave cxovrebiTa SemkobilTa, ara eriskacTa, aramed monazonTa RmrTismoSiSTa da yovelTa mier wamebulTa~. giorgis Tavisi gonierebiTa da mizanswrafulobiT gancvifrebaSi mohyavda berZeni Tanatolebi, romlebic cdilobdnen, miebaZaT gamorCeuli mowafisaTvis.  aq giorgim, sxvaTa Soris, srulyofilad Seiswavla berZnuli ena.

12 wlis Semdeg (1034 w.) bizantiis mefem ferisis qvrivsa da masTan erTad gadmosaxlebulebs samSobloSi dabrunebis neba darTo. ferisis qvrivTan erTad tvartawafSi dabrunda giorgi mwerali, romelmac TavisTan gadmoiyvana Tavisi Zma, giorgis mama iakobi; giorgis deda _ mariami am droisaTvis ukve gardacvlili iyo.

axalgazrda giorgi ki xaxulSi dabrunda Tavis meore biZasTan, sabasTan. rodesac giorgi 25 wlis gaxda, igi monazvnad akurTxa misma moZRvarma, didma ilarion Tvalelma. amis Semdeg giorgis ucxoobaSi wasvlis survili aReZra da yvelasgan uCumrad gaemarTa ierusalimSi. Zalze Sewuxdnen mama makari da sxva berebi, rodesac giorgis wasvla Seityves. maT gzebi Sekres da mdevari daadevnes  giorgis dasabruneblad. giorgim xerxi ixmara _ Tavisi tansacmeli erT glaxaks gaucvala ZonZebSi, win waimZRvara erTi sneuli, suliT avadmyofi kaci da amgvarad SeZlo mdevrebisgan Tavis daRweva.

gzaze giorgim gankurnebis saswauli aRasrula. erTxel giorgisa da mis Tanamgzavrs uRran tyeSi daaRamdaT. am dros Zlieri Weqa-quxili atyda. sneul kacs Svidgzis daeca bneda, giorgi mxurvaled loculobda mTeli Rame da RmerTs evedreboda, ganeSorebina sneulisagan suli boroti. RmerTma ismina giorgis locva-vedreba da sneuli ganikurna. giorgim gankurnebuli kaci erT monasterSi miiyvana da datova, TviTon ki gza gaagrZela.

      giorgim moixila Savi (sakvirveli) mTa da iq mdebare wm. svimeon sakvirvelmoqmedis monasteri. moiloca iq mdebare monastrebi da kurTxeva miiRo wminda mamebisagan. aq, sakvirvel mTaze, giorgi daemowafa wm. svimeonis monastris maxloblad mdebare erT napralSi mcxovreb wminda bers, giorgi dayudebuls (giorgi SavmTeli / giorgi Seyenebuli).  giorgi  Seyenebulma Tavisi mowafe daamkvidra Sav mTaze, romanawmindas monasterSi, sadac giorgim sami weli (1036-1039) gaatara. 1039 wels giorgi Seyenebulma ocdaaTi wlis  giorgi sqemiT akurTxa da ierusalims gaagzavna.

ierusalimSi yofnisas giorgi aTonelma moiloca wminda adgilebi da isev ukan, Tavis moZRvarTan dabrunda. giorgi Seyenebuli Tavis mowafes mouwodebda, berZnulidan qarTulad eTargmna saRmrTo wignebi da daesrulebina wm. efTvime aTonelis mier dawyebuli saqme.  giorgis sakuTari Tavi uRirsad miaCnda am didi Rvawlis aRsasruleblad, magram moZRvarma didi iZulebiT daarwmuna Tavisi mowafe da gaagzavna igi aTonis mTaze, ivironis monasterSi, romelic am dros qarTuli saliteraturo da samwignobro saqmianobis centrs warmoadgenda.

1040 wels aTonis mTisken martod mimaval giorgis gzad erTi adidebuli mdinare unda gadaelaxa. wyalSi Sesulma giorgim igrZno, rom Zala aRar yofnida napirze gasasvlelad. am dros mas TeTr cxenze amxedrebuli mSvenieri Wabuki gamoecxada. Wabukma giorgis nugeSi sca, xeli mokida, uvneblad gadaiyvana napirze da Semdeg gauCinarda. giorgi aTonelis rwmeniT,  Wabuki, romelmac wyalSi daxrCobisgan ixsna igi, didebuli mTavarmowame giorgi iyo.

1040 wels giorgi aToneli aTonis mTaze mivida. aTonelma qarTvelebma sixaruliT miiRes giorgi. pirveli Svidi wlis ganmavlobaSi giorgis Tavisi ganswavluloba ar gaumJRavnebia, igi yvelaze Seuracx saqmeebs asrulebda da monasterSi liton da uswavlel kacad iyo miCneuli.

rodesac giorgi Seyenebulma Seityo, rom misi mowafe ar eweoda mTargmnelobiT saqmianobas da arc mRvdlobis xarisxSi iyo ayvanili, Savi mTidan aTonze gaagzavna iovane, erT-erTi Tavisi mowafe da didi sayveduri SeuTvala giorgis. giorgi damorCilda maswavleblis nebas _ didi SiSiTa da mowiwebiT ekurTxa mRvdlad. mRvdlobis pativis miRebis Semdeg giorgi maleve daadgines dekanozad, anu `uxucesad mRvdelTa da mgalobelTa~.

am periodSi Sudga giorgi Targmnas berZnulidan qarTul enaze. man, pirvel rigSi, Targmna is wignebi, romlebic saeklesio cxovrebis safuZvels warmoadgens _ aucilebelia saRvTismsaxuro praqtikisaTvis: svinaqsari (qarTul enaze ukve arsebobda svinaqsari, Targmnili efTvime aTonelis mier, magram pirveli svinaqsari, romelic efTvime aTonels hqonda Targmnili Semoklebulad, giorgim ganavrco _ Tavi mouyara svinaqsaruli krebulebis cnobil yvela berZnul xelnawers, Targmna isini da Seadgina iseTi monumenturi naSromi, romelis msgavsi sisruliT berZnul enazec ki ar arsebobda); saweliwdo gamokrebuli saxareba; gamokrebuli pavleni, gamokrebuli sawinaswarmetyvelo, didi kurTxevani, pavle mociqulis epistoleebi, kaTolike epistoleebi, `dabadebis Targmaneba~ (igive `abraamis cxovreba~), seqtembris Tvis Tveni. yvela es wigni giorgim dekanozobis periodSi Targmna.

dekanozobis drosve Seudga giorgi ivironis monastris damaarseblebis, ioanesa da efTvimes Rvawlis aRweris sapatio saqmes. aRniSnuli Txzuleba ivironis monastris qarTveli berebis TxovniT daiwera. saqme isaa, rom berZnebi yvelanairad cdilobdnen monastris dasakuTrebas da ivironis qarTvel damaarsebelTa saxelisa da Rvawlis miCqmalvas. am saSiSroebis Tavidan asacileblad aucilebeli iyo, Seqmniliyo werilobiTi Zegli, sadac faqtebze dayrdnobiT iqneboda aRwerili ivironis qarTuli monastris daarsebis istoria.

Txzulebaze muSaobis dros giorgi eTaTbireboda am didebuli mamebis mowafeebsa da megobrebs, gamowvlilviT ekiTxeboda maT  am didebuli mama-Svilis cxovrebisa da moRvaweobis detalebs, raTaAmisi Txzuleba sando istoriul faqtebze yofiliyo dafuZnebuli.  Txzulebis zepiri wyaroebis garda, giorgi iyenebda sxvadasxva werilobiT Zeglebsa da sabuTebsac. ase rom misi Txzuleba Zalze sando istoriul wyaros warmoadgens.

amis Semdgom ivironis mamebma giorgi aToneli, misi survilis sawinaamdegod,  winamZRvrad airCies. winamZRvris xarisxSi ayvanilma giorgim mravali keTili saqme gaakeTa aTonis ivironis monastrisaTvis: monastris damaarsebeli, ioane aToneli Tavisi Svilis, efTvimes gverdiT dakrZala; eklesiaSi gadmoasvena agreTve didebuli qarTveli sasuliero moRvaweebis, episkopos arsen ninowmidelisa da ioane grZelisZis nawilebi, aRadgenina monastris dazianebuli saxuravi. saxuravis aRdgenisaTvis saWiro tyviis saSovnelad giorgis konstantinopolSi mouxda gamgzavreba, sadac man saWiro masala uSulaod bizantiis impetrators, konstantime monomaxs gamosTxova. tyviasTan erTad giorgim sxva mravali wyalobac miiRo imperatorisagan. amas garda, konstantinopolSi yofnisasa giorgi Sexvda saqarTvelos mefes, bagrat IV-sa da dedamiss, dedofal mariams, romelmac giorgis xelidan miiRo sqemis kurTxeva. saqarTvelos mefem, deda-dedofalma da maTma Tanmxlebma qarTvelebma mravali wyaloba gaiRes ivironis monastrisaTvis.  bagrat mefes didi survili hqonda, giorgi aToneli Wyondidis episkoposobaze daeTanxmebina, magram giorgim uari ganacxada eopiskoposobis pativze da ukan, ivironis monasterSi dabrunda.

      winamZRvris movaleobaTa gamo giorgi ver axerxebda sakmarisi dro daeTmo TargmanisaTvis. amis gamo giorgim orjer Tqva uari winamZRvrobaze da datova ivironis monasteri. pirvelad igi Savi mTisken gaemarTa, magram Sav mTaze myofma giorgi Seyenebulma aiZula giorgi, dabrunebuliyo ivironis monasterSi. meored giorgi pirdapir konstantinopolSi gaemarTa da mefisagan miiRo ivironis monastris datovebis nebarTva, raSic mas daxmareba aRmouCina iq myofma qarTvelm,a dedofalma mariamma, mefe bagratis dedam. konstantinopolidan giorgi Sav mTaze, svimeonwmidis monasterSi gaemgzavra, sadac igi sixaruliT miiRes. garkveuli xnis Semdeg konstantinopolidan Sav mTaze mivida mariam dedofali, romelsac ierusalimSi apirebda gamgzavrebas wminda adgilebis mosalocad. magram radganac imxanad ierusalimSi mgzavroba Zalze saSiSi iyo, antioqiis patriarqma dedofals ar urCia ierusalimSi mgzavroba. dedofalma giorgis sTxova, wasuliyo wminda qalaqSi da mis magivrad waeRo safase, romelic dedofals wminda adgilebisaTvis Sesawirad hqonda gamzadebuli. giorgim uari ver Sekadra dedofals, gaemgzavra ierusalimSi, moiloca wminda adgilebi da dedofliseuli Sesawiravi Seswira maT. am dros ierusalimSi giorgi-proxore jvris qarTvelTa monastrs aSenebda. giorgi uxvi SesawiraviT daexmara mas, giorgi-proxore ki evedreboda, rom mis mier Targmnili wignebi, pirvel yovlisa, jvris monastris biblioTekisaTvis gamoegzavna.

ierusalimidan giorgi Sav mTaze gaemarTa da, yvelanairi zrunvisagan gaTavisuflebulma, xeli mihyo wminda wignebis Targmnas. misi biografis, giorgi mciris sityvebiT, giorgi aTonels arasodes Seuwyvetia muSaoba da Targmnida yvelgan, sadac ki mouxdeboda xolme yofna: Sav mTaze, aTonis mTaze, konstantinipolSi Tu mgzavrobisas.

svimeonwmideli qarTvelebi didi Seviwroebas ganicdidnen berZnebisagan, romelTac ganzraxuloi hqondaT, saerTod gaeZevebinaT qarvelebi am monastridan. qarTvelebis uflebebis dasacavad da maTi rwmenis WeSmaritebis dasamtkiceblad giorgi aTonels orjer hqonda kamaTi antioqiis patriarqebTan: petresTan (1053-1057 ww.) da TevdosisTan ((1057-1076 ww.). orivejer giorgim brwyinvaled gaarTva Tavi dakisrebul movaleobas. Tevdosi patrarqTan saubris dros giorgim yvelanaiari eWvi gafanta saqarTvelos eklesiis avtokefalobis samarTlianobis Taobaze; amasTan, Tavisi daxvewili berZnuliTa da uaRresi ganswavlulobiT gancvifrebaSi moiyvana Tevdosi patriarqi da yvela masTan myofi. “daRacaTu naTesaviT qarTveli xar, sxviTA kula yovliTa sarwmunoebiTa sruliad berZeni xar”, _ase uTqvams Teodosi patriarqs giorgisaTvis. amis Semdeg Tevdosisa da giorgi aTonels Soris guliTadi megobroba damyarda da yvela saWirboroto saqmeze patriarqi qarTvel mamas eTaTbireboda xolme.

bagrat mefem da kaTalikosma mravalgzis moiwvies saqarTvekloSi giorgi aToneli. wminda mama bolos damorCilda mefis nebas da saqarTveloSi gamoemarTa. mefe-didebulebi da mRvdelmTavrebi didi pativiT Seegebnen giorgi aTonels. bagrati SeZlebisdagvarad gverdidan ar icilebda mas. erica da beric morCilad ismenda giorgis Segonebebs, damoZRvrasa da mxilebas. giorgim mTeli qveyana gananaTla Tavisi swavlebiT. xuTi wlis Semdeg giorgim aTonze wasvla gadawyvita da Tan gaiyola 80 oboli bavSvi, romelTac misi brZanebiT mouyares Tavi saqarTvelos sxvadasxva kuTxidan. giorgis ganzraxuli hqonda, mTawmindaze aRezarda isini da maTi saSualebiT gaemravlebina eklesia-monatrebSi moRvawe qarTvelTa ricxvi.

1065 wels giorgi aToneli konstantinopolSi Cavida. igi bizantiis keisarma miiRo da gaesaubra mas qarTvelTa rwmenis WeSmartebis Taobaze. meore Sexvedrisasa keisarma sTxova giorgis, eCvenebina misTvis oblebi da yvela Txovnis aRsulebas dahpirda.

meore dRes, 24 ivnisss, iovane naTlismcemlis Sobis dResaswaulze giorgi aToneli TanxmlebebTan erTda astudiis monasterSi gaemarTa, sadac naTlismcemlis Tavi iyo daculi. astudiadan qarTveli mamebi TavianT metoq monasterSi, qselrofSi gaemarTnen, sadac sami dReE dayves. meoTxe dRes, petrepavlobis dResaswaulis wina dRes, giorgi aTonelis brZanebiT, misma mxleblebma moamzades oblebi da yvelani erTad filopatis velisaken gaemarTnen, sadac im dros keisari imyofeboda. keisari ganacvifra berulad Semosili oblebis mcirewlovnebam da qarTulma galobam. giorgim winaswarmetyvelurad keisars Seavedra uasako oblebi. keisarma Seiwynara giorgis Txovna da sxva mravali wyalobac aRuTqva qarTvel mamas.

keisarTan Sexvedris meore DdRes, 29 ivniss, giorgim uZlureba igrZno da imave dRes, mowafeebisa da sulieri Svilebis garemocvaSi mSvidad dalia suli. misma sikvdilma ganuzomlad daamwuxra yvelani -  qarTvelebica da berZnebic. keisarma ivironis monastrs oqrobeWdiT mianiWa Seuvaloba da oblebs aRsazrdelad mTawmindis monasteri ganuCina _ amgvari iyo giorgis Txovna, romliTac man sikvdilis win  mimarTa keisars.

giorgi aToneli didi pativiT gadmoasvenes mTawmindaze. igi sami dRis ganmavlobaSi esvena efTvime aTonelis samartvilis winaSe, saidanac  yovelTa wmidaTas eklesiaSi gadaasvenes. erTi wlis Tavze, 24 maiss, giorgi aToneli eklesiis maSenebel giorgis  marmarilos luskumaSi dakrZales.

  ivironis monasterSi moRvaweobda erTi mTavardiakoni, saxelad stefane, romelic giorgi aTonelis kurTxeviT, mRvdlobis xarisxSi aiyvanes. erTxel, Jamiswirvis aRsrulebis dros, stefanes bnedam daria xeli. yvela iq myofi SiSma aitana. giorgi aTonelma dumiliT Seswira locva RmerTs da Semdeg neli xmiT gaesaubra stefanes. wminda mamis xmis gagonebaze stefane gons moego da Jamiswirvis msaxureba ganaxlda.

giorgi aTonelis cxovrebis ukvdavsayofad misma mowafem, giorgi mcirem dawera `cxoreba┴ da moqalaqoba┴ wmidisa da netarisa mamisa Cuenisa giorgi mTawmidelisa┴~.

literaturuli moRvaweoba

  1. originaluri Semoqmedeba   

       giorgi aTonels ekuTvnis originaluri Txzuleba hagiografiuli Janrisa `cxoreba┴ netarisa mamisa Cuenisa ioanesi da efT┬mesi da uwyeba┴ Rirsisa mis moqalaqobisa maTisa┴~, dawerili giorgis dekanozobaSi (1042-1044 ww-Si). Txzuleba mogviTxrobs aTonis ivironis qarvelTa monastris damaarsebelebis, mama-Svil ioane aTonelisa da efTvime aTonelis cxovrebisa da Rvawlis Sesaxeb.

      ori iambiko. amaTgan erTi erTvis giorgis mier naTargmn saxarebas, meore _ giorgis mier naTargmn `samociqulos~.

      originaluri himnebi, romlebic giorgis CaurTavs mis mier naTargmn TvenSi. mag., efTvime aTonelisa da iodasaf indoelisadmi miZRvnili sagaloblebi.

 

2. Targmanebi

giorgis Targmanebi saeklesio mwerlobis TiTqmis yvela dargs moicavs. gansakuTrebiT fasdaudebelia giorgis Rvawli liturgikaSi. giorgi mciris sityvebiT, giorgi, mouclelobis gamo, Ram-RamobiT Targmnida xolme; amasTan, Targmnida Seusveneblad: `...Seusveneblad Targmnin ... da ra┴TurTiT ara scemda gansuenebasa Tavsa T┬ssa, aramed dRe da Rame tkbilsa mas Taflsa wignTa saRmrToTasa Sureboda, romelTa mier daatkbo ena┴ Cueni da  wmidani ekklesiani ganaSuena...~. giorgi mciris sityvebiT, giorgi aTonelisnairi mTargmneli, Tuki efTvime aTonels ar CavTvliT, aravin yofila qarTvelTa Soris da arc momavalSi iyo mosalodneli  misi rangis mTargmnelis gamoCena: `ese yovelTa uwyiT, viTarmed egeviTari Targmani T┬nier wmidisa mamisa Cuenisa efT┬messa sxua┴ ara gamoCenila enasa Cuensa da, vhgoben Tu, arca gamoCinebad ars~. biografis cnobiT, giorgi Targmnida yvelgan, sadac ki uxdeboda yofna _ mTawmindaze, Sav mTaze, ulumboze, antioqiaSi, svimeonwmindasa da kaliposSi. mas Tavisi dauRalavi SromiT gancvifrebaSi mohyavda ara marto qarTvelebi, aramed berZnebic.

giorgis Targmanebze didi moTxovnileba iyo: isini dauyovnebliv vrceldeboda qarTul eklesia-monastrebSi: _ qarTveli mwignobrebi elodebodnen da dauyovnebliv iwerdnen xolme giorgis axal Targmanebs. rodesac giorgi aToneli ierusalimSi imyofeboda, jvris qarTvelTa monastris amSenebeli da pirveli winamZRvari, giorgi-proxore, evedreboda mas, gamoegzavna Tavisi Targmanebi jer kidev mSenebare jvris monastris wignsacavisTvis.

       giorgis Targmnis meTodi: giorgim garkveuli meTodologiuri siaxle Seitana qarTul mTargmnelobiT praqtikaSi. efTvime aToneliseul `kleba-matebis~ meTodisagan gansxvavebiT, giorgi upiratesobas aniWebda dednis ufro zustad da srulad gadmoRebas. magaliTad, liturgikuli `Tvenis~ Targmnis dros giorgim, SeZlebisdagvarad, Tavi mouyara ama Tu im wmindanis saxelze daweril yvela berZnulenovan sagalobels da Seadgina krebuli, romlis msgavsi sisruliT berZnul enazec ki ar arsebobda.

      giorgi aTonelis mier berZnuli enidan qarTul enaze Targmnili Txzulebebi:

bibliologia: `fsalmunni~, `oTxTavi~, `samociqulo~ (`saqme mociqulTa~ da `kaTolike epistoleebi~) `pavleni~ (pavle mociqulis epistoleebi). giorgis mier Targmnili bibliuri wignebi kanonikur teqstebadaa aRiarebuli saqarTvelos eklesiis mier. efrem mciris cnobiT, giorgi aTonels `fsalmunTa~ Targmnis dros didi Sroma gauwevia _ mas orgzis uTargmnia teqsti berZnulidan qarTulad.

apokrifebi:  `avgarozi~ (anu miwer-mowera ieso qristesa da edesis mefe avgarozs Soris); `wigni, romeli dawera ieseb arimaTielman, mowafeman uflisa Cuenisa ... da uwyeba┴ aRdgomisaTvis uflisa Cuenisa iesu qristesa da aRSenebisaTvis eklesiisa, romel-igi pirvel aRaSena luds Sina, qalaqsa wmidisa dedoflisa Cuenisa RmrTismSoblisa, maradis qalwulisa mariamissa~

egzegetika:  basili didis `equsTa dReTaT┬s~, grigol noselis `dabadebisaT┬s kacisa~, grigol noselis `Targmaneba┴ qeba-qebaTa┴sa~, ioane oqropiris `Targmani dabadebisa┴, romel ars cxoreba┴ abrahamisi~.

   dogmatika da polemika:   nikea-konstantinopolis krebis `simbolo~, grigol sakvirvelTmoqmedis, neokesariis episkoposis `simbolo~, aTanase aleqsandrielis `simbolo~, foti patriarqis `simbolo~, ioane damaskelis `sityua┴ RmrTismetyuelebisaT┬s da SobisaT┬s uflisa Cuenisa iesu qristesi~, egnate RmerTSemosilis dogmatikuri Sinaarsis 12 epistole (maTgan xuTi fsevdo-egnateseuli nawarmoebia), basili didis dogmatikuri xasiaTis epistole sefeqal simolikias mimarT, `wmidaTa krebaTaT┬s, romelTa daamtkices marTali sarwmunoeba┴~ (kiTxva-migebis formiT).  

   hagiografia:  nektari konstantinopolelis `wm. Teodores wameba~, ioane damaskelis `SobisaTvis uflisa~, doroTeso t┬relis `mowafeTa maTT┬s uflisa~daujdomeli an akaTisto (didmarxvis mexuTe SabaTis sakiTxavi, romelSic moTxrobilia ambavi konstantinopolis saswaulebrivi gaTavisuflebisa skviTebisa da avarebis alyisagan 662 wels), `wm. giorgis wameba!~, `wm. Teodore tvironis wameba~.

   homiletika: Teodore stodielis ``swavlani didTa marxvaTa sakiTxavni~, sofron ierusalimelis `sityva┴ xarebisaT┬s~, grigol noselis `wm. Teodroes Sesxma~.  

   liturgika:   `didi svinaqsari~, `saxareba┴ gamokrebuli saweliwdo~, `pavle gamokrebuli saweliwdo~, `samociqulo gamokrebuli~, `sawinaswarmetyvelo gamokrebuli~, Tormeti Tvis `Tueni~, `stiqaroni~, `irmologioni~, `didi paraklitoni~, `didni marxvani~, `zatikni~, `didi kurTxevani~.

   saeklesio samarTali:   `mcneba┴ mRudelTa mimarT~, `mcneba┴ wmidisa Jamiswirvisa┴ mRudelTa mimarT, raTa ara wirviden dResa Sina orgzis, aramed erTgzis~.

 

     wyaroebi da samecniero literatura:

  1. saqarTvelos samoTxe, sruli aRwera┴ RuawlTa da vnebaTa saqarTvelos wmidaTa, Sekrebili qronologiourad da gamocemuli m. sabininis mier, sankt-peterburgi, 1882, 437-488.

  2. janaSvili, m., aTonis iveriis monastris 1074 w. xelnaweri aRapebiT, tfilisi, 1901, 279-351.

3.       Zveli qarTuli agiografiuli literaturis Zeglebi, II, Tb., 1967, 106-207. Zveli qarTuli agiografiuli literaturis Zeglebi, IV, Tb., 1968, 420-425; 267-271 (giorgi aTonelis svinaqsaruli `cxovreba~).

4.       Zveli qarTuli literaturis qrestomaTia, gamoc. s. yubaneiSvilis mier, I, 1947, 180-214 (Semoklebuli teqsti).  

5.       Сабинин, М., Житие славных преподобных отцев наших Иоанна и Евфимия, Полное жизнеописание святых грузинской церкви, II, СПб, 1872, 161-212.

6.       Peeters, P., Histoires monastiques gÚorgiennes. Vita beati patris nostri Iohannis atques Euthymii, conscripts a paupercolo Georgio presbytera et monacho, Analecta Bollandiana, t. XXXVI-XXXVII, 1917-1919, 74-159.

  1. afciauri, j., giorgi mciris giorgi mTawmidelis cxovreba, Tb., 1980.

  2. kekeliZe, k., Zveli qarTuli literaturis istoria, I, Tb., 1980, 213-234.

  3. maCxaneli, m., ioane, efTvime da giorgi aTonelebis berZnuli `cxovreba~, Tb., 1982.

  4. menabde, l., Zveli qarTuli mwerlobis kerebi, I, nakv. I, Tb., 1962, 30, 33, 64, 99, 109; nakv. II, Tb., 1962, 393, 412, 420, 421, 434, 453, 455-457, 517, 546, 547, 549, 552, 554.

  5. menabde, l., Zveli qarTuli mwerlobis kerebi, II, Tb., 1980,

  6. metreveli, e., qarTuli originaluri himnografiis istoriisaTvis XI saukuneSi, Tbilisis pedagogiuri institutes Sromebi, t. IX.

  7. SaniZe, a., giorgi mTawmidlis ena iovanesa da eqvTimes cxovrebis mixedviT, wignSi: giorgi mTawmideli, cxorebaiovanesi da efTmesi, gamosacemad moamzada i. javaxiSvilma, Tb., 1946.

  8. javaxiSvili, i., Zveli qarTuli saistorio mwerloba, wignSi: iv. javaxiSvili, Txzulebani Tormet tomad, t. VII, Tb., 1977, 142-151.

  9. xinTibiZe, e., bizantiur-qarTuli literaturuli urTierTobani, 1969, Tb., 103-131.

  10. Lampros, S., Catalogue of the Greek manuscripts on Mount Athos, vol. II, Cambridge, 1900, 147.

  11. Метревели, Е., О ктиторах Ивирона, Jurn. macne, els, @#2, 1992, 49-53.

  12. Peeters, P., Histoires monastiques gÚorgiennes. Vita beati patris nostri Iohannis atques Euthymii, conscripts a paupercolo Georgio presbytera et monacho, Analecta Bollandiana, t. XXXVI-XXXVII, 1917-1919, 69-74.

 

 

 

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წმ. გიორგი ათონელი

XIX ს.–ის მხატვრობა