მთავარი     მოღვაწენი     გალერეა     ინდექსი     ძებნა                 
           

 

 

 

efrem mcire

 XI  saukunis I naxevari – XI saukunis miwuruli an XII saukunis dasawyisi.

qarTveli sasuliero moRvawe, mwerali, mTargmneli, mwignobari, mecnieri filologi, Savi mTis (siria) qarTuli saliteraturo skolis warmomadgeneli; saqarTvelos eklesiis wmindani. mis xsenebas  saqarTvelos eklesia aRniSnavs 18/31 ianvars.

      savaraudod, efremi taoeli aznauris, vaCe kariWisZis Svili iyo. 1027 wels  iveriis Temis berZeni gamgeblis, nikitas ZalisxmeviT, vaCe kariWisZe sxva taoel aznaurebTan erTad wasula saberZneTSi. efremi, marTalia, ar unda dabadebuliyo konstantinopolSi, magram, safiqrebelia, rom adreuli asakidanve iq izrdeboda. 

      efrem mcirem ganaTleba konstantinopolSi miiRo. aq igi srulyofilad daeufla berZnul enas, Seiswavla filosofia, RmrTismetyveleba, ritorika da sxv.

      XI saukunis 60-iani wlebis damdegs efrem mcire konstantinopolidan  siriaSi, antioqiaSi gadavida da Sav mTaze damkvidrda. aq efremi aqtiur mTargmnelobiT da samwignobro saqmianobas eweoda. efremi mWidrod iyo dakavSirebuli hqonda Savi mTis ganTqmul literaturul wreebTan.  mas urTierToba uxdeboda cnobil bizantiel kanonist mweralTan, nikon SavmTelTan, miqael berTan – ioane damaskelis `cxovrebis~ arabuli Txzulebis avtorTan; agreTve, SesaZlebelia, adania mitropolit samuelTanac, romelmac miqael xucis arabuli Txzuleba berZnul enaze gadaTargmna (es ukanaskneli ki efremma qarTulad Targmna).

      efremis dros Sav mTaze moRvaweobdnen farTo ganaTlebis mqone sxva qarTveli berebic. maT  Soris iyvnen: anton tbeli, saba Tula┴sZe Tuxareli, efrem didi oSkeli, ioane mTavara┴sZe. saTargmni masalis SerCevaSi da Targmnis xelovnebis dauflebaSi efrems sasargeblo rCevebiT exmarebodnen saba Tuxareli, anton tbeli, gabriel beri. mag., berma ioane patrik-yofilma farnakelma efrems teqstis aRqmis gasaumjobeseblad punqtuaciis wesebis SemoReba urCia.  

XI saukunis 90-ian wlebSi efremi Savi mTis kastanas monastris winamZRvrad daadgines.  

efremis gardacvalebis zusti TariRi ucnobia. 1103 wlis Catarebuli ruis-urbnisis krebis sinodikonSi efrem mcire gardacvlilTa Soris aris moxseniebuli.

      efrem mciris originaluri Semoqmedeba. efrem mcires ekuTvnis ori originaluri Txzuleba, ori iambiko da Tavis Targmanebze darTuli uaRresad mniSvnelovani sqolioebi, anderZebi da winasityvaobebi: 1. `mosa├senebeli mcire s┬meonisaT┬s loRoTetisa da Txroba┴ mizezsa amaT sakiTxavTa Targmanisasa~. aRniSnulia Txzuleba  2 nawilad iyofa. pirvel nawilSi efrems warmodgenili aqvs cnobebi  bizantiuri mwerlobis TvalsaCino warmomadgenlis, cnobili hagiografis, svimeon loRoTetis (X s.) cxovrebisa da literaturuli memkvidreobis Sesaxeb. meore nawili ki eZRvneba svimeon loRoTetis metafrasuli hagiografiuli krebulis gamgrZelebels, ioane qsifilinoss. efremis cnobebi am ori bizantieli hagiografi mwerlis Sesaxeb unikaluri xasiaTisaa da pirvelxarisxovani mniSvneloba aqvT bizantiuri literaturis istoriisaTvis.

      2. `uwyeba┴ mizezsa qarTvelTa moqcevisasa, Tu romelTa wignTa Sina moi├seniebis~. aRniSnuli Txzulebis Seqmnas Tavisi istoria gaaCnia: am periodSi, Sav mTasa da, zogadad, antioqiis sapatriarqoSi moRvawe berZnebi ar aRiarebdnen qarTvelTa saeklesio damoukideblobas, ar cnobdnen qarTul werilobiT ZeglebSi moyvanil monacemebs qarTvelTa gaqristianebisa da qarTuli eklesiis istoriis Sesaxeb. amis gamo, qarTuli eklesiis damoukideblobisa da avtoritetis dasacavad, aucilebeli gaxda, Seqmniliyo Txzuleba, sadac Tavmoyrili iqneboda berZnuli werilobiTi wyaroebSi arsebuli cnobebi qarTvelTa gaqristianebis Sesaxeb. amgvari Txzulebis Seqmna SeeZlo mxolod uaRresad gaswavlulsa da berZnuli enis srulyofilad mcodne pirs. Savi mTis qarTuli samonastro koloniis sulierma winamZRvarma, ioane-kvirikem arCevani efrem mcireze SeaCera da mas daavala amgvari Txzulebis dawera.

efremis `uwyeba┴~ mTlianad berZnul wyaroebs eyrdnoba. esenia: : Teodorite kvirelis `istoria~, evagres `istoria~, e.w. `antioqiis qronografi~, agreTve `andria mocioqulis mimoslva~ da sxv.  Txzulebidan Cans, rom mxolod berZnul tradiciis gaTavliswinebiTac ki, qarTuli eklesiis damoukideblobas ueWveli safuZveli hqonda. kerZod, efrem mcires, sxvaTa Soris, gamoyenebuli aqvs berZnuli wyaroebi, sadac moTxrobilia, rom qarTvelebisaTvis qristianoba uqadagiaT mociqulebs: andria pirvelwodebulsa da barTlomes. amiT efremi asabuTebda, rom qarTvelebs qristes moZRvreba mociqulebisagan hqondaT SeTvisebuli, rac kanonier safuZvels aZlevda qarTuli eklesiis damoukideblobas.

      3. efrem mcires dauweria originaluri iambikoebic. misi ori iambiko erTvis efremis mier Targmnil `samociqulos: a) `iambikoni mociqulTa saqmisa da maTTana maT kaTolikeTa da pavles epistoleTani berZnulni~, 2) grigol nazianzelisadmi miZRvnili iambiko, romelic efrems daurTavs mis mier Targmnili grigolis Txzulebis bolos;

      4. efremis originaluri Semoqmedebis nimuSebs warmoadgens sqolioebi, winasityvaobebi da anderZebi, romlebic axlavs mis mier Targmnil Txzulebebs. Targmanebze muSaobisas efrem mcire sagangebod Targmnida xolme ama Tu im avtoris  sxvadasxva Sinaarsis (gramatikuli, istoriuli, leqsikografiuli, egzegetikuri, filosofiuri da a.S.) mqone ganmartebebs, romelTac Tavad efremi `sityvadarTulobebs~ uwodebda. amgvari ganmartebebi _  sqolioebi, rogorc wesi, warmodgenili iyo ZiriTadi teqstis gaswvriv, e.w. aSiebze _ xelnaweris furclebis mindvrebze. sqolioebi mkiTxvels exmareboda ZiriTad teqstSi gadmocemuli azris ukeT gagebaSi. gansakuTrebiT didi raodenobiT erTvis sqolioebi efremis mier Targmnil grigol nazianzelisa da fsevdo-dionise areopagelis Txzulebebs. efrems Targmnili aqvs sxvadasxva avtoris, mag. nikita filosofosis, maqsime aRmsareblis, germane konstantinopolelis da sxv. mier Seqmnili sqolioebi. 

      efremis originaluri winasityvaobebi, romlebic win uZRvis efremis mier Targmnil Txzulebebs (esenia: ioane damaskelis `dialeqtika~, fsevdo-dionise areopagelis Txzulebebi, grigol nazianzelis 16 liturgikuli sityvisagan Sedgenili krebuli, `fsalmunTa Targmaneba~ da `samociqulos Targmaneba~), Zalze yuradsaReb cnobebs Seicavs efremis mTargmnelobiTi meTodisa da, zogadad, bizantiuri literaturisa da literaturis Teoriis sxvadasxva sakiTxis Sesaxeb.    faseulia agreTve efremis originaluri anderZebic, romlebSic mraval saintereso cnobas vxvdebiT ama Tu im berZeni avtoris, agreTve calkeuli teqstebis istoriis Sesaxeb. 

      efrem mciris mTarmnelobiTi meTodi da misi Targmanebi: Zvel qarTul mwerlobaSi efrem mcire elinofiluri mimarTulebis fuZemdebelia. es mimarTuleba aRmosavleTis qristiani erebis kulturul cxovrebaSi gulisxmobda bizantiuri sasuliero ganaTlebisa da kulturis miRwevebis srulyofil aTvisebas yvela sferoSi: RvTismetyvelebaSi, liturgikaSi, saeklesio musikaSi, mecnierebaSi da a. S. mwerlobaSi es procesi gamovlinda  berZnuli dednebis zedmiwevniTi sizustiT Sesrulebul TargmanebSi _ dednis yvela detalis, azrobrivi niuansis da enobriv-stiluri niSnebis SenarCunebaSi. marTalia, qarTul mTargmnelobiT literaturaSi elinofilobis safuZvlebi ufro adre Semzadda (efTvime aToneli, daviT tbeli, giorgi aToneli), magram yvelaze gamoxatulad elinofiloba, rogorc kulturuli orientacia, efrem mciris Semoqmnedebidan iwyeba (bezaraSvili).

      dednisadmi aseTi damokidebulebis amsaxvelia efrem mciris mRavalricxovani Targmanebi, romlebic sasuliero mwerlobis sxvadasxva Janrs miekuTvnebian:

      bibliologia:  efremis mier Targmnili da redaqtirebulia `samociqulo” (anu `saqme mociqulTa~, `kaTolike epistoleebi~, `pavleni~).

     egzegetika: `epistoleTa Targmaneba~ (SeiZleba iTqvas, rom es efremis originaluri naSromia, romlis safuZvlad efrems gamoyenebuli aqvs ioane oqropiris `epistoleTa Targmaneba~); `fsalmunTa Targmaneba~ (dawerilia 1080 wlamde); grigol neokesarielis `eklesiastes~ Targmaneba, e.w. `metafrasi eklesiastesi~;  winaswarmetyvel ezekielis wignis Targmaneba, e.w. `ezekielis metafrasi~ (qarTul xelnaweruli tradicia, rogorc wesi, am Txzulebas grigol nazianzelis TxzulebaTa Soris aTavsebs).

      dogmatika da polemika:  grigol nazianzelis 4 Txzuleba: a) sityva ivlianes ganmaqiqebeli~, b) `sityua arianosTa mimarT da Tavisa T┬sisa~, g) `sityua evnomianosTa mimarT da RmrTismetyuelebisaT┬s winaganbWoba┴~;

efrem mcires Targmnili aqvs agreTve ioane damaskelis Txzulebis `wyaro codnisas~ ori Tavi, romelsac, efremis versiaSi ewodeba `gardamocema┴ ucilobeli marTlmadidebelTa sarwmunoebisa┴~. garda amisa, efrems Targmnili aqvs ioane damaskelisave erTi sityvac, romelic mimarTulia xatmebrZoleobis winaaRmdeg _ `sityua┴ sity┬ssagebeli maTi, romelni hgmoben wmidaTa xatTa~.

      asketika da mistika:  basili didis `asketikoni~ (garda basilis didisave `iTikisa~, romelic ufro adre hqonia Targmnili efT┬ime aTonels); efrem asuris `asketikoni~, romelic ori wignisagan Sedgeba (qarTul xelnawerul tradiciaSi am nawilebs ewodeba `efrem pirveli~ da `efrem meore~. `efrem pirveli aerTianebs 18 Tavs, `efrem meore~ ki _ 32-s); fsevdo-dionise areopagelis 5 Txzuleba: `saRmrToTa saxelTaT┬s~ (13 Tavi), `zecaTa mRvdelmTavrobisaT┬s~ (15 Tavi), `saeklesio┴sa mRvdelmTavrobisaT┬s~ (7 Tavi), `saidumlod RmrTismetyuelebisaT┬s~ (5 Tavi), `epistoleni TiTosaxeni~ (sul Seicavs 10 epistoles, miwerils sxvadasxva piris mimarT); kasiane hromaelis Txzulebebi: `Txroba┴ wessa da gangebasa eg┬ptisa aRmosavleTisa monasterTa sakrebulosaTa~ da `miwerili leontis mimarT moqalaqobisaT┬s wmidaTa mamaTa skitisaTa~; paladi helenopolelis `lavsaikoni~ (Sedgeba 72 Tavisagan); Teodorite k┬relis `RmrTismoyuarebiTi Txroba┴~ (aRniSnul Txzulebas efremi, berZnuli saxelwodebidan gamomdinare, `filoTeon istorias~ uwodebs.  igi 30 Tavisagan Sedgeba); Teodorite kvirelis `sityua┴ saRmrTo┴sa siyuarulisaT┬s~ (romelic asrulebs Teodorite kvirelis `filoTeon istorias~).

      hagiografia: metafrasuli redaqciebi Semdegi hagiografiuli Txzulebebisa: Teodore petra-arabielis `cxovreba Teodosi didisa~; `cxovreba pelagia antioqielisa~; `wameba dimitrisi~; `wameba ieronisi da misTanaTa, romelni iwamnes melitines somxiTisasa~; `wameba mina megviptelisa, romeli iwama qalaqsa kot┬aos~; `cxovreba wm. ioane oqropirisa~; grigol noselis `cxovreba grigol neokesarielisa~; `cxovreba ioane damaskelisa, arabulad aRwerili miqael xucis mier da berZnulad Targmnili samuel adanelis mier~; Txroba wm. sofias macxovris xatis mier aRsrulebuli saswaulisaTvis: `Txroba┴ didebulisa saswaulisa, romel iqmna wmidasa mas zeda jurRmulsa didisa eklesiisasa sofiawmidas sauflo┴sagan da patiosnisa xatisa uflisa iesu qristesa da mun mosrulisa misT┬s patrikisa da qristes moyuarisa mwignobrisa misisa~;  Txroba xalkupratiis macxovris xatis saswaulisaTvis: `Txroba┴ sulTa sargebeli saswaulisa misT┬s, romeli iqmna xalkupratias xatisa qristesisa, romlisa mizezisaT┬s ewoda mas Tavsmdeb, da TeodoresT┬s menavisa da abraham huriisa~; `cxovreba spiridon trimiTuntelisa~.  

      homiletika:  grigol nazianzelis 26 `sityvani~, `Tqmulni~ da `Sesxmani~, maT Soris grigol nazianzelis 16 liturgikuli da 19 araliturgikuli `sityvebi~; amfiloqe ikonielis `sityua migebebisaT┬s macxovrisa~; giorgi nikodimielis `sityua RmrTismSoblis taZrad miyvanebisaT┬s~ da `sityua┴ yovlad wmidisa RmrTismSoblisaT┬s~; evsuqi ierusalimelis `Sesxma┴ xarebisaT┬s RmrTismSoblisa~; Teodore stodielis `Sesxma┴ naTlismcemlis Tavis povnisa~; sofron ierusalimelis `migebebisaT┬s uflisa~, `amaRlebisaT┬s uflisa~, wmidisa grigol RmrTismetyuelisaT┬s~; ioane oqropiris `Sesxma┴ wm. romanozisa~, `Sesxma┴ wm. stefane pirvelmowamisa~, ori sityva `amaRlebisaT┬s uflisa~; anastasi sinelis `SesuenebulTaT┬s~; ioane damaskelis ``SesuenebulTaT┬s~, `sityua leRvisaT┬s ganxmelisa da igavisaT┬s venaxisa~, `sityua meored moslivsaT┬s uflisa~; basili didis `marxuaTaT┬s~; germane konstantinopolelis `sityua juarisaT┬s da wmidaTa xatTa~; ioane Tesalonikelis `sityua gankacebisaT┬s uflisa da xarebisaT┬s RmrTismSoblisa~; andria ierusalimelis `sityua bzobisaT┬s da ierusalimad SeslvisaT┬s uflisa~; `Txroba┴ saswaulisa mis, romeli aResrula bivritias xatisa mier macxovrisa (didmarxvis pirveli kviriakis sakiTxavi); qeba┴ eklesiad mimavalTa da keTilwesierebisaT┬s didebismetyuelebaTa Sina~.

      efremis naTargmnia agreTve ramdenime epitafiac (=saflavze warmoTqmuli qadageba) esenia: grigol nazianzelis mier Seqmnili basili didis epitafia: `mamisa T┬sisa grigori anZianZoreli episkoposisa, romeli aRmosTqua saflavsa zeda missa mun yofasa didisa vasilissa~; seronis mitropolitis, nikita filosofosis (XI s.) mier galeqsili epitafia basilis didisa: `epitafiad basilissa stixosni iroikoni, parafrasni nikita filisofosisa~; basilis didis epitafia: `sityua epitafiad didisa basilisaT┬s~; kesariosis epitafia: `epitafia Zmisa T┬sisa kesariosisaT┬s~.

      liturgika: `aRdgomis kanoni~ (Targmnili antoni tbelis brZanebiT); locva ziarebisaTvis: `locva┴ lxinebisa┴ maT zeda, romelni ziarebisagan ganyenebulni anu dayenebulni axlad eziarebodin~ (es cnoba daculia xelnawerSi sin 83 (cagarliT) / sin 73 (javaxiSviliT); wesi gamahmadianebuli qristianis moqcevisa (ierus. mariseuli aRweriloba, gv. 85). SesaZlebelia, efrem mciris mier iyos Targmnili erT-erTi redaqcia `didi serobis Sedegisa~, romelic didmarxvaSi sruldeba xolme (es cnoba daculia TxzulebaSi `mcire uwyeba qarTvelTa mweralTaT┬s~).

      filosofia: ioane damaskelis `dialeqtika~.

      iambikoni: grigol RvTismetyvelis 19 saidumlo himni, e.w. `aporita~.

      epistoleebi: `ioane oqropiris epistoleTagan, eqsoriobiT mowerili il┬mpia┴s mimarT dedTa diakonia~ (sul 6 epistole); 25 epistole, miwerili basili didsa, grigol nazianZelis da sxva pirTa mimarT; grigol RvTismetyvelis epistoleebi, miwerili basili didis (sul  epistole), nektari konstantinopolelis (1 epistole), afreTve sxvadasxva pirTa (sul 28 epistole) mimarT.

 

wyaroebi da samecniero literatura:

 

  1. efrem mcire, uwyeba┴ mizezsa qarTvelTa moqcevisasa, Tu romelTa wignTa Sina moi├senebis, teqsti gamosca, Sesavali da leqsikon-saZieblebi daurTo T. bregaZem, Tbilisi, 1959.
  2. efrem mcire, iambikoni, wignSi: yubaneiSvili, s., Zveli qarTuli literaturis qrestomaTia, I, Tb., 1946, gv. 363-372.
  3. efrem mcire, grigoris mier RmrTismetyuelisa, didisa basilis saflavsa zeda warwerilni sityuani, wignSi: yubaneiSvili, s., Zveli qarTuli literaturis qrestomaTia, I, Tb., 1946, gv. 372-373.
  4. kekeliZe, k., bizantiuri metafrastika da qarTuli agiografia, krebulSi: universitetis Sromebi, XXX/I B, gv. 37-40 (efrem mciris Txzulebis `mosa├senebeli mcire s┬meonisaT┬s loRoTetisa da Txroba┴ mizezsa amaT sakiTxavTa Targmanisasa~).
  5. Кекелидзе. К., Симеон Метафраст по грузинским источникам, Труды Киевской академии, № 2, февраль, 1910. xelmeore publikacia ix. wignSi: kekeliZe, k., etiudebi Zveli qarTuli literaturis istoriidan, t. V, Tb., 1957, gv. 212-226.
  6. Кекелидзе. К., Иоанн Ксифилин, продолжатель Симеона Метафраста, Христианский Восток, №1, вып. 3, 1912, 325-347.
  7. ioane damaskeli, dialeqtika, m. rafavas gamoc., Tb., 1976.
  8. petre iberieli (fsevdodionise areopageli), Sromebi, s. enuqaSvilis gamocema, Tb., 1961.
  1. kekeliZe, k., etiudebi Zveli qarTuli literaturis istoriidan, t. V, Tb., 1957, gv. 212-226.
  1. Кекелидзе. К., Иоанн Ксифилин, продолжатель Симеона Метафраста, Христианский Восток, №1, вып. 3, 1912, 325-347.
  2. bezaraSvili, q., elinofilizmi, wignSi: qarTuli ena, enciklopedia, Semdg. i. qobalava, Tb., 2008, gv. 157-158.
  3. bezaraSvili, q., efrem mcire, elinofilizmi da berZnul-qarTuli leqsTwyobis sakiTxebi, filologiuri Ziebani, II, Tb., 1995.
  4. bezaraSvili, q., baZvis tradiciuli klasikuri cneba bizantiuri ritorikis istoriaSi da efrem mciresTan, macne, els, # 1-4, 1997.
  5. bezaraSvili, q. ritorikisa da Targmanis Teoria da praqtika grigol RvTismetyvelis TxzulebaTa qarTuli Targmanebis mixedviT, Tbilisi, “mecniereba”, 2004.
  6. danelia, k., narkvevbi samwerlobo enis istoriidan, Tb., 1998.
  7. kekeliZe, k., Zveli qarTuli literaturis istoria, I, Tb., 1980, 250-269.
  8. TvalTvaZe, d., efrem mcire – bizantiuri mwerlobis mTargmneli-komentatori (avtoreferati), Tb., 1997.
  9. TvalTvaZe, d., efrem mciris erTi ucnobi anderZi, Zveli qarTuli enis kaTedris Sromebi, 27, Tb., 1988.
  10. metreveli, e., efrem mciris avtografi, wignSi: e. metreveli, filologiur-istoriuli Ziebani, I, Tb., 2007, 109-126.
  11. sityuani fsalmunTani SemoklebiT gamokrebulni mravalTa wignTagan, gamoc. n. doborjginiZis mier, t. 1-2, Tb., 1995-1996.
  12. sarjvelaZe, z., qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis Sesavali, Tb., 1984.
  13. SaniZe, m., fsalmunTa wignis Zveli qarTuli Targmanebi, Tb., 1979.
  14. SaniZe, m., sityua┴ arTronTaT┬s – Zveli qarTuli gramatikuli traqtati, Tb., 1990.
  15. cqitiSvili, T., efrem mcire, wignSi: qarTuli ena, enciklopedia, Semdg. i. qobalava, Tb., 2008, 194-196.
  16. WeliZe, e., Zveli qarTuli saRvTismetyvelo terminologia, Tb., 1996.
  17. javaxiSvili, iv., efrem mcire, Zveli qarTuli saistorio mwerloba (V-XVIII ss.), wignSi: iv. javaxiSvili, Txzulebani Tormet tomad, t. VIII, Tb., 1977, 158-175.

 

moamzada Tina ceraZem