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iovakime caiSel-bedieli, კათალიკოსი

dasavleT saqarTvelos kaTalikosi 1474-1480-iani ww.

 

      saqarTvelos politikuri daSlilobis tendencia XV saukunis meore naxevarSi imdenad Zlieri iyo, rom  igi saeklesio cxovrebaSic SeiWra. XV saukunidan moyolebuli, gansakuTrebiT konstantinopolis dacemis (1453 w.) Semdeg,  osmalTagan Seviwroebuli antioqiisa da ierusalimis patriarq-mitropolitebi xSirad stumrobdnen aRmosavleTis qristianul qveynebSi. aq isini cdilobdnen gavlenis mopovebas samwysos gafarToebis da TavianTi ekonomikuri mdgomareobis gaumjobesebis mizniT. gankerZoebis gzaze damdgari qarTveli mefe-mTavrebi xelgaSliT egebebodnen sapatio stumrebs da maT sakuTari politikuri ganzraxulobis Sesasruleblad iyenebdnen. ase xdeboda samcxe-saaTabagoSi da ase moxda dasavleT saqarTveloSic. antioqieli patriarqebi maTTvis saWiro materialur daxmarebas iRebdnen da Tavis mxriv, adgilobrivi eklesiis cxovrebaSi Carevas “Zveli saeklesio viTarebis” aRdgenis surviliT asabuTebdnen.  

      daaxl. 1470-1474 wlebSi imerTa mefem bagrat II-m (qarTl-imereTSi bagrat VI) isargebla antioqiis patriarqis dasavleT saqarTveloSi CamosvliT da kaTalikosad akurTxebina caiSel-bedieli episkoposi iovakime. bagratTan erTad am saqmeSi didi gulmodgineba gamoamJRavna Samadavle dadian-gurielma. iovakimes kaTolikosad kurTxevis aqti gaformda dokumentiT, romelic cnobilia ,,mcnebaŃ sasjuloŃs” saxelwodebiT. rogorc Cans, dasavleT saqarTvelos eklesiis wiaRSi mcxeTisagan gamoyofis survili didi xnis momwifebuli iyo, sxvagvarad TviT bagratic ver SeZlebda mis ganxorcielebas. am dromde, marTalia, saqarTvelos erTiani politikuri organizmi ukve daSlili iyo, magram dasavleT saqarTvelos kaTalikoss Zveleburad qarTlis kaTalikosi akurTxebda xolme.  Seqmnil politikur  viTarebaSi mcxeTis taxts aRar SeeZlo sawinaaRmdego zomebis miReba. ase gadainacvla politikur cxovrebaSi gamarjvebulma  separatizmma eklesiis sferoSi, riTac gamousworebeli ziani miadga qarTveli xalxis erovnul erTianobas.

      antioqiis patriarqma ,,mcnebaŃ sasjuloŃSi”, dasavleT saqarTvelos eklesiis mcxeTisagan gamoyofis “samarTlianobis” dasabuTebisaTvis

TviT qarTveli Tanamoazreebis daxmarebiT gaixsena is uZvelesi viTareba, rodesac qarTuli eklesia misi Camoyalibebis pirvel etapze marTlac iyo damokidebuli antioqiis sapatriarqoze. amrigad, dasavleT saqarTvelos mesveurebma TavianTi nebiT Tqves uari qarTuli eklesiis TviTmwysobaze. amiT gauadviles saqme antioqiis patriarqs, romelsac, saeklesio kanonebis Tanaxmad,  avtokefaluri eklesiis saSinao saqmeebSi Carevis ufleba ar hqonda. TavianTi gadawyvetilebis gasamarTleblad am saqmis ganmzraxvelebs mouSveliebiaT sxva argumentic:  wminda ninom mxolod qarTli moaqcia, xolo manamde dasavleT saqarTveloSi iqadaga wminda mociqulma andria pirvelwodebulmao. amitom, maTi azriT, samarTlianoba moiTxovda qarTuli eklesiis gayofas am niSniTac. 

      ase gaimijna erTmaneTisagan dasavleTi da aRmosavleTi saqarTvelos eklesiebi. afxazTa kaTalikoss mieniWa damoukidebeli eklesiis mesaWis yvela ufleba. igi Camocilda mcxeTis taxts, magram daemorCila antioqiis patriarqs. ase, rom dasavleT saqarTvelos eklesiis TviTmwysoba moispo da ierusalim-antioqiis patriarqis xelqveiTi Seiqna. n. berZeniSvilis moswrebuli TqmiT,  mixail  patriarqi ,,SeemTxva” swored iseT drosa da pirobebs, roca misi “kurTxeva da madli” saWiro da nayofieri iyo mTliani saqarTvelos mesaflavisaTvis.

 

SeniSvnebi:

1. ,,mcnebaŃ sasjuloŃs” daweris TariRad samecniero literaturaSi 1470-1474 wlebia miRebuli, radgan vaxuSti batoniSvilis cnobiT, am ZeglSi moxseniebuli Samadavla bedianad 1470 wels gaxda da 1474 wels gardaicvala.  d. niniZis azriT, dokumentis Seqmnis dros bagrats qarTlSi realuri Zalufleba aRar hqonda. ,,mcnebaŃs” SeqmniT bagrati upirispirdeba aRmosavleT saqarTvelos taxts da, kerZod, konstantine II-s (konstantine II zogierTi dokumentis mixedviT bagratis Tanamefed Cans). mowinaaRmdegis dasustebas bagrati cdilobs erTiani qarTuli eklesiis gayofis saSualebiT.      

2. s.kakabaZis azriT, antioqiis patriarqis saqarTveloSi mosvla ubralo damTxveva iyo im drosTan, roca afxazeTis sakaTalikoso taxtze axlad gardacvlili winandeli episkoposis nacvlad axali piris daniSvna iyo saWiro. man antioqiis patriarqi mxolod erT-erT monawiled miiCnia kandidatis SerCevaSi, mis kurTxevasa da ,,mcnebai sasjulos” SedgenaSi mixedviT, gamodis, rom afxazTa kaTalikosi adrec damoukidebeli iyo qarTlis kaTalikosisagan. es mosazreba wyaroebiT ar dasturdeba.        

3. wyaroebidan cnobilia, rom V s-Si, vaxtang gorgaslis dros, antioqiis adgilobriv saeklesio krebaze qarTlis eklesiam avtokefalia (TviTmwysoba) da mironis adgilze damzadebis uflebac miiRo. es uflebebi daamtkica VI msoflio saeklesio krebam (konstantinopoli, 681 weli). miuxedavad amisa, antioqiis patriarqebs araerTxel gamouTqvamT pretenziebi qarTlis eklesiis avtokefaluri uflebebis mimarT, risi usafuZvlobac jer kidev XI saukuneSi antioqiaSive, iseve berZnul wyaroebze dayrdnobiT, SesaniSnavad daamtkices giorgi mTawmindelma da efrem mcirem.     

4. iv.javaxiSvilis azriT, mixeil patriarqs surda daemtkicebina, rom wminda nino mxolod qarTlis ganmanaTlebeli iyo, xolo andria mociquli mxolod qarTlis ,,aqaTi” qveynis, rom lixT-amereTi da lixT-imereTi ganmanaTlebelTa mixedviTac, sxvadasxva qveynebi iyvnen. sapirispirod amisa,  wyaroebi andria mociqulis qadagebisa da mimosvlis Sesaxeb, agreTve ruis-urbnisis Zegliswera, efrem mcire, arseni beri, leonti mroveli, giorgi mTawmindeli adastureben, rom wm. andria mociqulma qarTlSic (samcxe, awyuri) iqadaga. Tundac asec yofiliyo, es araviTar SemTxvevaSi ar SeiZleboda mcxeTis sakaTalikosodan gamoyofis argumentad miCneuliyo.   

5. andria pirvelwodebulze aqcentis gakeTeba patriarqs imis samtkiceblad dasWirda, rom afxazeTis kaTalikosi ,,ierusalimis marjvenad,” ,,sjulisa da merjuleTa ufrosad” andria mociqulis Tanamosaydred gamoecxadebina.  aseTi Zlieri argumentis gabaTileba, mcxeTas, marTlac unda gasWirveboda. 

6. n. berZeniSvilis Tanaxmad, orive sabuTi mixail patriarqisa iqiTken iyo mimarTuli, rom mcxeTis mosalodneli ieriSebi gaebaTilebina. patriarqi gaRma edaveboda, rom gamoRma SerCenoda. orive sabuTi erTimeores avsebda da momxdar ukuRmarTobas, ase Tu ise, kanonier gamarTlebas uZebnida.     

7. mixail patriarqi gansakuTrebiT yuradRebas amaxvilebs 325 wlis nikeis pirvel msoflio krebaze, radgan am saeklesio krebaze  damswre 318 episkoposTa Soris moixsenieba biWvinTis (pitiuntis) episkoposi stratofile, riTac, erTi mxriv, imaze mianiSnebs, rom IV saukunis dasavleT saqarTveloSi qristianoba myarad fexmokidebuli religia iyo, meore mxriv, biWvintis saepiskoposo saydars mcxeTaze upiratesobas aniWebs.

8. ,,mcnebaŃ sasjuloŃ” Zvirfasi wyaroa imJamindeli afxazTa samTavros religiuri situaciis Sesaswavlad. kerZod, naTqvamia,   rom ,,afxazeTi qristianobisagan srulad midrekil iyunes, qristes mcnebaTagan ganSorebuli” da iovakimes maT mosaqcevad gansakuTrebuli Sroma gauwevia.    

9. ,,mcnebaŃ sasjuloŃs” mixedviT, afxazeTis sakaTalikosos samwysoSi garda ,,lixT-amerisa”, Sedioda mTeli miwa-wyali ,,Woroxs aqaT, ovseTsa aqaT, zRuai pontosa aqaT, sada biWuintisa samzRuari miaRwevs”. e.i. imereTs, gurias, odiSs da afxazeTs garda, mTeli aWara, SavSeTi da klarjeTi.   

10. raRac mniSvnelovani damsaxurebisaTvis iovakime moxseniebulia ierusalimis jvris monastris aRapebSi: dekembris v, amasve dResa saukuno aRapi Caisel-bedielis da afxazeTisa qaTalikozisai iovakimisi, Seundven RmerTman (e. metreveli).

 

wyaroebi da samecniero literatura:

  1. s.kakabaZe, dasavleT saqarTvelos saeklesio sabuTebi, I, tfilisi, 1921, gv.5.

  2. s. kakabaZe, saistorio moambe, II, tfilisi, 1924. gv.272-273.

  3. iv. javaxiSvili, qarTveli eris istoria,  IV, Tbilisi, 1967, gv.114.

  4. n. berZeniSvili, saqarTvelos istoriis sakiTxebi, V, 1971, gv.101-103.

  5. d.niniZe,Sinapolitikuri brZolis istoriidan XV saukuneSi, (,,orianoba”) , Tsu Sromebi, #310, 1992, gv.12.

  6. e. metreveli, masalebi ierusalimis qarTuli koloniis istoriisaTvis, Tbilisi, 1962, aRapi #101, gv. 88.

 

 

 

moamzada mzia surgulaZem